Scientists from Newcastle University (UK) discovered 131 antibiotic resistance genewhich turn some microorganisms into very tough superbugs against soil treatment in the arctic region.
The detection was made at ground witnesses, obtained on the island of Spitsbergen, on the Spitsbergen archipelago (Norway), which until now was considered intact in relation to this type of pollution.
"Polar regions among the Earth's ecosystems, which must be primevaland this allows us to establish the control threshold of an era preceding antibiotics in order to understand the extent of contamination of resistance genes ", said in a statement David graham, director of investigation.
But the results of the study, which were published in the journal Ecological International, show that only a few points in the Kongsfjorden bay area, on the island of Svalbard, remain intact.
Scientists have discovered antibiotic resistance genes there, which were located in India, at a distance of almost 13,000 kilometers. These include blaNDM-1, a gene found in the hospital in 2008, in urban and surface waters in 2010, which provides multiple resistance or multiple resistance to antibiotics. Since then, blaNDM-1 has been found in more than 100 countries, sometimes in the form of new variants.
All these genes are disturbing because its presence indicates the presence of microbes or DNA fragments which give resistance to microorganisms against the treatment of infections.
The blaNDM-1 gene stands out because resistant to carbapenems, one of the types of antibiotics that are used as a last resort when everyone else has failed. Currently, there are few antibiotics to fight the bacteria that have acquired this resistance gene.
In particular, Graham's study identified 131 genes associated with nine types of antibiotics used to treat many infections.
For example, a gene that confers resistance to bacteria that causes tuberculosis was detected in all soil samples, while the blaNDM-1 gene was detected in 60% of controls.
Transmission through birds
According to Graham, these genes may have reached arctic soils primarily through bird excrement and the arrival of other animalsbecause people rarely visit this area.
"Less than three years after the first discovery of the presence of blaNDM-1 in the urban waters of India, we find it thousands of kilometers in an area where there was minimal human exposure," explained the researcher.
"The invasion of areas like the Arctic reinforces the idea of how effective and fast was the expansion of antibiotic resistancethat confirms that solutions to this problem should be global, not local, ” influenced.
In fact, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), antibiotic resistance is a global crisis, and one of the greatest threats to global healthfood security and development.
People accelerated research
"What people have done through the abuse of antibiotics around the world is accelerate the speed of evolution Out of bacteria the creation of a new universe of resistant strains that have not existed until now ”, explained Graham.
The consequence of this is that, although natural bacteria readily adapt and become resistant, there are few antibiotics in the development, because "It's just not profitable to do them," according to Graham.
To avoid the serious problem of antibiotic resistance, this scientist suggested not only improving the management of medicine and agriculture, but also better study the transmission of this phenomenon through water and soil.
a source: ABC,
Reference article: https://www.abc.es/ciencia/abci-encuentran-huellas-superbacterias-artico-201901282153_noticia.html,