If you or your relative has been diagnosed with diabetes, you will most likely hear a number of medical terms that you may not be familiar with, but which are important in order to learn to know and manage this health condition.
We will explain some of the most frequent. For a more complete list, you can check this link in Spanish.
DIABETES TYPE 1
A condition characterized by high blood glucose levels is caused by the complete absence of insulin. This happens when the body's immune system attacks and releases insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Then the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Type 1 diabetes develops most often in young people, but can occur in adults.
DIABETES TYPE 2
A condition characterized by high blood glucose levels caused by a lack of insulin or the body’s inability to use insulin effectively. Type 2 diabetes develops in people of middle and older age, but can appear in children, adolescents and young people.
They talk about prediabetes when blood glucose levels are higher than usual, but not so high for diagnosing diabetes.
This is a simple sugar composition. Foods consisting of carbohydrates, with the digestion is converted into simpler elements, that is, glucose, which is the main source of energy of the body.
It is a hormone in the digestive system, the task of which is that glucose, which circulates through the blood, penetrates into the cells and is used as energy.
These are the glands of the digestive system, located behind the stomach, where digestive enzymes, insulin and glucagon are produced.
INSULIN RESISTANCE (Insulin resistance)
This occurs when the cells of the body resist the use of insulin, which circulates in the blood, without being identified insulin receptors, which are in the cells.
This is the presence of albumin microparticles in the urine, which is not normal and suspicious of impaired renal filtrate.
This is the blood glucose level. This is the most common method for diagnosing diabetes. This should be done in the laboratory and should be left hungry from 12 hours prior to the test. If the result is high, it is recommended to confirm the interval of at least 3 days.
This is the measurement of glucose level by piercing the side of the finger to get a drop of blood using an automatic puncture device and then applying it to a test strip that is inserted into a device called a glucometer. This is a useful method for home self-control and the detection of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia.
It consists of 7 measurements of capillary glycemia, performed before and 2 hours after the start of a meal during the three main meals and before bedtime or at night.
Glycosylated or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1 and HBA1c)
A test that measures the average level of glucose in a person’s blood over the last 2-3 months.
Glucose Tolerance Test or Glucose Overload
This is a measurement of blood glucose after 2 hours of intake of 75 g of glucose. It is recommended as a drug and within 3 days before the test, take a diet rich in carbohydrates. You must fast 12 hours before the test. During the test, you should sit and not smoke.
This is a problem in regulating the level of glucose, which appears during pregnancy in a woman not previously diagnosed with diabetes.
An emergency in which an extremely high blood glucose level and an acute shortage of insulin result in the breakdown of body fat for energy production and the accumulation of ketones in the blood and urine. Its symptoms are nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, fruity breathing and rapid breathing. Without treatment, it can lead to coma and death.
The compound is produced when there is a shortage of insulin in the blood, and the body breaks down body fat to produce energy.
A condition that occurs when ketones are present in the urine, a warning sign of diabetic ketoacidosis.
blood glucose meter
A small portable machine used by people with diabetes to check their blood glucose levels.
Oral medications are used to treat type 2 diabetes, which lowers blood glucose levels by reducing the increase in glucose produced in the liver, and helps the body respond better to insulin produced by the pancreas.
A disease of the nervous system to which diabetics are prone. In people with diabetes, there are three main forms: peripheral neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy and mononeuropathy. The most common form is peripheral neuropathy, which affects the feet and legs.
A disease that affects people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, in which the stomach takes a long time to empty the contents.
increased pressure in the eye.
The general term for all retinal disorders caused by diabetes.
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