The world's largest radio telescope, experiments to mitigate the effects of climate change, the first research center dedicated to marijuana and the regulation of genetic publication.
Here are some of the main scientific topics that will focus on 2019, according to the magazine nature,
Here we present some of the achievements and announcements expected in accordance with the prestigious scientific publication.
1. "Responsible" genetic publication
The world of genetics will continue to discuss the story that shook the world of science in December: the announcement of a Chinese researcher He is jiankuiwho claimed to have created the first genetically modified children.
I claimed that I changed the genes of the twins called "Lulu" and "Nana" so that they do not become infected with human immunodeficiency virus, HIV.
The announcement deserves widespread international condemnation because of the risks of the CRISPR genetic editing method, which can cause unwanted mutations.
In 2019, scientists will try to confirm whether the statement about Him is true, and will look for mechanisms to ensure that the editing of human DNA occurs only responsibly and safely.
2. Cosmic signs
It is expected that the largest radio telescope in the world, Telescope radio spherical opening 500 meters from China (FAST)Commissioning in September.
From the beginning of the first stage of commissioning in 2016, a telescope worth $ 170 million has already discovered more than 50 new pulsars, dense dead stars, rotating at high speed.
The telescope will look for weak signals that arise from such phenomena as radio wave explosions and clouds of cosmic gas.,
On the other hand, it is expected that astronomers in 2019 will decide on the construction of a 30-meter megatelescope on Mount Mauna Kea in Hawaii.
The project suffered delays due to opposition from local residents, but justice rejected the last of its demands in 2018.
3. Solar geo-engineering
Numerous studies in 2018 warned of the severity of climate change. Perhaps the one that had the most impactGlobal warming 1.5 degrees Celsius"published in October by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change or the IPCC.
The report says that greenhouse gas emissions should begin to decline in just 12 years so that the warming does not exceed 1.5 degrees.
In 2019, the first experiments will be conducted, specifically designed to understand how to artificially cool the planet using solar geo-engineering.
One such test is the experiment with stratospheric controlled perturbation (SCoPEx) from Harvard University.
The researchers plan to launch a balloon about 20 km high with a charge calcium carbonateA very common mineral powder that is used in products like cement, toothpastes, cake mixes or pills to soothe an upset stomach.
Scientists from Harvard explained that after the balloon was in place, it would disperse dust in the atmosphere and create an “air mass of disturbed air,” which will be about a kilometer in length.
The goal is to study the dispersion of those particles that can ultimately reflect back sunlight.
4. Polar projects
In January, researchers from the USA and the UK will begin their largest joint mission in the Antarctic for more than 70 years.
The goal of the five-year project is to determine whether an unstable Glacier Thweates will begin to fall apart in the coming decades.
Scientists will use autonomous underwater vehicles and install sensors on seals to study oceanic conditions near this Florida-sized glacier.
A few months later, European explorers plan to drill ice in the ice dome, Little Dome C or Little Dome C in Antarctica to try to extract 1.5 million years ice cylinder,
If successful, the ice pipe will be the oldest climate record on our planet.
5. Time of truth for the collider
2019 may be a decisive year for plans to create a successor to the Large Hadron Collider, LHC, for its abbreviation in English.
Physicists in Japan have proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) in 2012, after the discovery of the Higgs boson, which could be studied in more detail in the new particle accelerator.
But the report for 2018 commissioned by the Japanese government criticized the huge cost of the project – about 7,000 million US dollars.
Japan is the only country that has shown interest in conducting MLC, and the government of this country is expected to make a statement on it before March 7.
6. ABC of biosafety
The World Health Organization is expected to complete the largest revision since 2004. Laboratory Biosafety Manual,
The guide is used worldwide and recommends practical methods for controlling high-risk pathogens such as Ebola.
As a result of the review, more attention will be paid to risk assessment and staff training in the laboratory.
7. Center for marijuana
Researchers in Canada should see the first results of numerous studies in the field of biology and cannabis cultivation.
In October 2018 Canada legalizes cannabis for all purposes. (the second nation in the world who did this after Uruguay).
This decision led to a significant increase in funding for marijuana research by provincial and federal agencies.
By the end of 2019, scientists are expected to UUniversity of Guelph open the first academic center dedicated to marijuana research in Canada.
The center will examine all aspects of the plant, from its genetics to its potential health benefits.